Vietnam Journal of Catalysis and Adsorption

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Volume 7, Issue 3, October 2018

ISSN: 0866-7411

 

In this issue (20 articles)

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REVIEW PAPER

open access logo 200x200Development of low-temperature catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3: Review

Thanh Huyen Vuong1,2,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Anh Tuan Doan2, Thanh Huyen Pham2, Angelika Brückner1

1 Leibniz Institute for Catalysis at the University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 29a, D-18059 Rostock, Germany
2 School of Chemical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi, Vietnam

ABSTRACT

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides by ammonia over V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalysts is one of the most popular techniques to control NOx emission from combustion processes which, however, operates only in a rather high and narrow temperature range of 300-500°C. The temperature of other NOx sources such as diesel or lean-burn gasoline engines is much lower. Therefore, development and optimization of catalysts being highly active and selective for NH3-SCR of NOx already at temperatures well below 300°C is highly desirable. In recent years, significant efforts have been dedicated to developing de-NOx catalysts for both stationary sources and diesel engines working at low temperatures. Among various SCR catalysts, Mn-based catalysts obtained the highest low-temperature activity. However, their low SO2 and H2O resistance, and preference for N2O formation limited these catalysts for industrial applications. V2O5 supported on different materials still have attracted much attention due to high SCR activity and SO2 tolerance at low temperatures. Recently, Cu-containing small pore zeolites with a CHA or AEI structure, such as Cu-SSZ-13, Cu-SAPO-34, and Cu-SSZ-39, Cu-SAPO-18, respectively, exhibited high low-temperature activity and high-temperature excellent hydrothermal stability, and thus received much attention for applications on diesel vehicles. In this review, we will focus on the development of different catalysts for low-temperature NH3-SCR of NOx.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200Potassium Coordination in K-KFI Zeolite Investigated by Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction

Son T. Le, Binh T. Nguyen, Trong D. Phammail

Faculty of Chemistry, VNU University of Science, 19 Le Thanh Tong, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi, Vietnam

ABSTRACT

The KFI (Si/Al=4) zeolite was prepared by a hydrothermal method using 18-crown-6 as the organic structure directing agent. The synthesized material was characterized by in-house X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption isotherm. The material possessed a high crystalline structure with well-defined cubic shape, large surface area, and high micropore volume. The atomic positions of atoms, potassium locations and occupancies parameters were determined from the refined Synchrotron X-ray diffraction pattern of potassium exchanged KFI. The Rietveld refinement results indicated that K+ cations were located at three different sites (SI’, SII, and SIII), at which site SII at the puckered 8-membered ring of the pau-cages is the most stable site. The elucidation of extra-framework cation sites in zeolites is crucial in understanding the structure-property relationship for zeolite catalysts and adsorbents.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200Influence of Water on the Activation of Methanol over Platinum: A DFT Study

Trinh Quang Thang1,2,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Dao Quoc Tuy1, Huynh Dang Chinh1, Pham Thanh Huyen1,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

1 School of Chemical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet St., Hanoi, Vietnam.
2 Cambridge Centre for Advanced Research and Education in Singapore (CARES), Campus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterprise (CREATE), 1 Create Way, 138602 Singapore.

ABSTRACT

Water plays an active role in aqueous phase catalytic reactions. In this study, the effect of water on the chemical activity and selectivity of the C-H and O-H bond activation in methanol on Pt was studied using density functional theory. On clean terraces in gas phase, C-H and O-H activations are competitive with energy barriers of 88 and 82 kJ/mol, respectively. The selectivity however reverses in the presence of a monolayer of water and the O-H activation barrier is increased to 128 kJ/mol. The C-H activation barrier of 108 kJ/mol is less affected and the CH activation becomes the dominant channel, in agreement with experiments at low potentials. At higher potentials, the presence of surface hydroxyl groups opens a new hydrogen abstraction pathway with a very low barrier for O-H bond activation of 9 kJ/mol. Hydroxyl groups can also activate C-H bonds and hydrogen abstraction in methoxy has a barrier of 67 kJ/mol, but is however higher than the barrier for direct C-H activation of 36 kJ/mol.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200Liquid Oxidation of Styrene Mg-Cu-Al Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts

Le Thi Kim Huyen1,2, Tran Le Huy1, Nguyen Tien Thao1,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

1Faculty of Chemistry, VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University Hanoi
2Mien Trung Industry and Trade College

ABSTRACT

A set of CuxMg0.7-xAl0.3(OH)2(CO3)0.15.mH2O hydrotalcite-like compounds were synthesized by the co-precipitation technique at a certain pH. The synthesized samples have been characterized by some physical means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, EDS and BET prior to use as a catalyst for the liquid oxidation of styrene with aqueous tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide (TBHP) oxidant. The synthesized samples show good hydrotalcite structure and with the presence of Cu(II) ions in layered Mg-Al hydroxides. Under similar reaction conditions, MgCuAl-CO3 layered double hydroxide catalysts exhibited good activity and high selectivity towards styrene oxide (75% selectivity at 73% styrene conversion) as compared with the MgAl-CO3, CuO/MgAl-CO3, and mixed oxides of MgCuAl-O.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200Characterization of Hydrogenated Natural Rubber Prepared through Hydrogenation in the Presence of Palladium Catalyst in Latex Stage

Nguyen Thu Ha1,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Phan Trung Nghia1, Seiichi Kawahara2

1 Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet street, Hai Ba Trung district, Hanoi, VIETNAM
2 Nagaoka University of Technology, 940-2188 Nagaoka-shi, Niigata-ken, JAPAN

ABSTRACT

Heterogeneous hydrogenation of natural rubber present in dispersoids of the latex holds a unique place in a field of the heterogeneous catalyst reaction, since it proceeds in various sequences of the complicated reactions. In this study, the hydrogenation of natural rubber was carried out in the presence of palladium as catalyst. The formation of palladium particle during the hydrogenation reaction was proved. The characterization of the resulting material was made through TEM observation, NMR spectroscopy, gel content determination and particle size measurement.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200The formation of Rh-complexes and deactivation of supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts in hydroformylation of ethylene

Truong Duc Duc1, Le Minh Thang1,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

1 School of Chemical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, VIETNAM

ABSTRACT

Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts with two ligand TPPTS-Na3 & TPPTS-Cs3 using low acidity mesoporous TiO2 supports were prepared and applied to continuous, gas-phase hydroformylation of ethylene. Ionic Liquid (IL) loading contents influence significantly on activities and surface area of SILP catalysts and 2.5%vol of IL was the most suitable one. The formation of Rh-complexes as well as deactivation of SILP catalysts caused by decomposition of Rh-complexes were confirmed by new method EPR spectroscopy.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200Different effects of elements Co, Mo on CuO catalysts for direct conversion of light hydrocarbons

Vu Quoc Quan1, Le Minh Thang1, Pham Thi Mai Phuong2This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

1School of Chemical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology
2Advanced Institute for Science and Technology, Hanoi University of Science and Technology

ABSTRACT

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbons to value products is a huge challenge but has attracted great interest from the researchers. In this study, we explored the different influences of Co, Mo on CuO catalyst for applying on reaction of C1 and C3. Catalysts CuO/Co were prepared by co-precicitation while CuO/Co/Mo and CuO/Mo catalysts were prepared by sol-gel. The characterization of catalysts were determined by XRD, BET methods. As observing from the XRD patterns, the addition of Mo or Co/Mo has almost changed crystal structure of CuO/Mo and CuO/Co/Mo due to new phases of Co and Mo has been formed. The catalysts were tested on reaction of CH4 and C3H6 at elevated temperature. The results showed that Co had positive effect on oxidation of hydrocarbon, but negative effect on selectivity. On the other hand, Mo was proved to be important factor for selectivity of acrolein in the reaction of oxidation C3.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200Separation of Fischer-Tropsch alkanes from methane by mesoporous silica membranes

Thu H.A. Ngo1,3, Phuong N.X. Vo2, Marion Stöhr3, Sebastian Wohlrab3,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

1 Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, VNU University of Science, Hanoi, VIETNAM
2 Vietnam Petroleum Institute, Vietnam Oil and Gas Group, HoChiMinh city, VIETNAM
3 Leibniz Institute for Catalysis, Rostock, GERMANY

ABSTRACT

The production of alkanes from synthesis gas via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is known for nearly 100 years. Up to now, the parallel production of methane as side product is still a serious problem to run the process efficiently. Especially, the production of lower alkanes is accompanied by the formation of CH4. With this contribution we present a novel membrane based separation procedure for the removal of produced C2+ alkanes from Fischer-Tropsch reaction mixtures. The residual methane can be recycled and fed back to the reformer. The experimental results show that the separation efficiency for higher alkanes through mesoporous silica membranes extremely increased when condensation takes place (e.g. T ≤ 268 K for n-butane); multinary alkane mixtures require lower operation temperatures (T ≤ 252 K) due to the lower boiling points of C2/3+. And, with such a membrane processing step a much more efficient methane recycle to the pre-reformer can be achieved in the Fischer-Tropsch process.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200Direct hydrothermal synthesis and post-synthesis grafting of boron onto SBA-15: influence of synthesis method on the support of Pt containing catalyst for the hydrogenation of tetralin

Ngo Thi Thanh Hien, Le Van Tuyen, Nguyen Van Tuan, Pham Thanh HuyenThis email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

School of Chemical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, VIETNAM

ABSTRACT

Boron has been introduced in the the framework of SBA-15 by direct hydrothermal synthesis and post-synthesis method with Si:B ratio of 10:1. Wetness impregnation (WI) method is used to load platinum on B-SBA-15. The obtained support and catalyst was characterized by TPD-NH3 and FTIR-pyridin to investigate the influence of B on the acidity as well as the Bronsted and Lewis sites of the catalyst.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200ACIDIC MODIFIYING OF NATURAL ZEOLITE AS CATALYST FOR ETHERIFICATION IN GREEN CHEMISTRY

Hieu Do Trung1, Hendrik Kosslick1,2, Riaz Muhammad2, Raja Al Otaibi4, Son Le Thanh3,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Axel Schulz1

1 Institute of Chemistry, University of Rostock, Germany
2 Leibniz-Institute for Catalysis, Rostock, Germany
3 Faculty of Chemistry, VNU – Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam
4 National Center for Petrochemical Technology (NCPT), Kind Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riad, Saudi Arabia

ABSTRACT

This work deals with the preparation, characterization and testing of a hierarchical porous clinoptilolite-based natural zeolite as a potential catalyst for the conversion of renewable glycerol feedstock to valuable fuel additives. The available natural zeolite clinoptilolite was ion exchanged with ammonium and activated at different temperatures in order to obtain the acid form of the zeolite. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG-DSC, TPD of ammonia, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption. The catalysts were tested in the acid catalyzed etherification of glycerol with tert-butanol. The acid catalysts show high activity in the etherification reaction.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200Influence of Zn loadings on the characterization and catalytic performance of ZnO/ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst for n-hexane aromatization

Vu Dinh Trinh, Doan Anh Tuan, Vuong Thanh Huyen, Pham Thanh HuyenThis email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

School of Chemical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam,

ABSTRACT

The characterization and catalytic performance of ZnO/ZSM-5 catalysts in the n-hexane aromatization were reported. Catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and thoroughly characterized using EPR, FESEM, STEM. The n-hexane conversion of 96 % and aromatic selectivity of 52 % was obtained with 6 % ZnO/ZSM-5 catalyst at 500 °C.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200Catalytic cracking of cumene over ZSM-5 based catalysts obtained by direct- and post- synthetic routes

Vu Xuan Hoan1,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Dang Thanh Tung1, Vu Duy Hung2,3, Tran Thi Nhu Mai3

1 Vietnam Petroleum Institute, 167 Trung Kinh, Yen Hoa, Cau Giay, Hanoi
2 Binh Son Refining and Petrochemical Company, 208 Hung Vuong, Tran Phu, Quang Ngai
3 Hanoi University of Science, 344 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan Trung, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi

ABSTRACT

Direct- and post-synthetic approaches were explored for preparation of hierarchical ZSM-5 catalysts aiming to enhance their cracking reactivity. The resulting catalysts were thoroughly characterized by XRD, N2-sorption, AAS, ICP-AES, NH3-TPD before being tested in the cracking of cumene as a model reaction. The results show that the introduction of either intracrystalline mesopores by the post-synthetic treatment or intercrystalline mesopores by the direct-synthesis has increased the utilization of strong Brønsted acid sites inside the micropores of ZSM-5 crystals, leading to a higher cumene conversion over the hierarchical ZMS-5 compared to commercial ZSM-5.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200ZSM-5 additive preparation by spray-drying method using different domestic binders

Pham Van Duy2, Dang Thanh Tung1,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Ngo Thuy Phuong1, Le Phuc Nguyen1, Pham Thanh Huyen2,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

1Vietnam Petroleum Institute, Hanoi, VIETNAM
2School of Chemical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, VIETNAM

ABSTRACT

Current article describes the spray drying method to produce zeolite ZSM-5 addivite for FCC catalyst to improve the propylene yield of the FCC process. The preparation synthesis mixture, the parameter of the spray drying process are also present. The catalytic performance of the ZSM-5 additives was affected by changing the composition of the binders, especially the propylene yeilds and gasoline yeilds. The use of domestic materials showed significant performance which led to a spotlight in applying those components to manufacture ZSM-5 additives in Vietnam.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200FTIR Study of NO and NO+O2 co-adsorption on Co-ZSM-5 synthesized by different methods

Nguyen Quang Minh1,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Dao Quoc Tuy1, Ursula Bentrup2

1 School of Chemical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
2 Leibniz Institute for Catalysis e. V. at the University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock, Germany

ABSTRACT

Different Co-ZSM-5 catalysts were prepared by solid ion-exchange (SE) and exchange in methanolic solution (LE-MeOH) and characterized by XRD, TPR, and pyridine adsorption. Furthermore, the nature and stability of adsorbed species on the catalyst surface formed under NO and NO+O2 co-adsorption conditions were studied. During NO adsorption the formation of: NO+ occupying cationic zeolite positions [υ(NO) at 2133 cm-1], Co2+(NO)2 dinitrosyls [υs(NO) = 1895 cm-1 and υas(NO) = 1812 cm-1] and Co3+-NO linear species [υ(NO) at 1937 cm-1] was observed. In the presence of gaseous O2 the formation of nitrate and nitrite species is facilitated (1300 to 1650 cm-1), the extent of which depends on the Co content as well as the nature of the Co species formed by the different synthesis methods. The change of intensity bands during the time and temperature were also discussed.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200Influence of organic structure directing agents on the formation of SAPOs structure

Doan Anh Tuan1, Nguyen Ngoc Khang1, Dam Le Quoc Phong1, Vuong Thanh Huyen1,2, Le Minh Thang1, Pham Thanh Huyen1,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

1School of Chemical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam
2Leibniz Institute for Catalysis, University of Rostock, Germany

ABSTRACT

Silicoaluminophotphate (SAPO) are potential eco-friendly catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3 at low-temperature. This study investigated the effects of organic structure directing agents on the formation of SAPOs structure. Different organic structure directing agents namely, triethylamine (TEA), tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) and morpholine were chosen for the synthesis. Obtained SAPOs were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, BET and EPR methods.
The results showed that the template TEA was preferable to synthesize SAPO-5 molecular sieve, whereas morpholine was the most suitable template for SAPO-34. TMAOH and a combination of organic templates (TMAOH and TEA) led to the formation of SAPO-11 and SAPO-37, respectively.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200Photocatalytic activities of graphitic carbon nitride based material modified by oxidation step

Vu Viet Thang1, Norbert Steinfeldt2, Ta Hong Duc1,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

1 Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No. 1 Dai Co Viet Str., Hanoi, Vietnam
2 Leibniz Institute for Catalysis, Albert-Einstein-Straße 29a, D-18059 Rostock, Germany

ABSTRACT

The graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was synthesized from urea as precursor by pyrolysis method and oxidized by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, ATR-IR and UV-Vis. The characterization results revealed that there were oxygen functional groups appeared in the structure of g-C3N4 and made improvement of material’s chemical properties. The photocatalytic activities were tested with organic pollutant as methyl orange (15 mg/L) under visible light. This process was followed by UV-Vis analysis and HPLC methods. It was found out that the oxidation with H2O2 could improve the photocatalytic properties of g-C3N4 significantly, due to the impressive photogenerated electrons capture ability of oxygen functional groups on the material in the absence of oxygen.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200Preparation of TiO2 nano –material coating on rice husk ash and applicaton for nitrogen compound removal from water

Dang Thi Ngoc Thuy1, Nguyen Hoang Nam1,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Do Khac Uan2, Nguyen Thi Ha3

1Department of Environment, Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, No. 18 Vien street, Bac Tu Liem, Hanoi
2School of Environmental Science and Technology, Ha Noi Polytechnic University, 1 Dai Co Viet, Ha Noi
3Faculty of Environmental Science, VNU-University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Ha Noi

ABSTRACT

This article reports the results of initial research on synthetic process of nitrogen modified TiO2 nano-material and coating on the rice husk ash by the sol-gel method. Nitrogen modified TiO2 nano-material has anatase crystalline properties. The particle size has relative uniformity, about 25nm, and covers quite evenly on the surface of the husk ash. The specific surface area of the prepared material is 109.7 m2/g. The efficiency of NH4+, NO3- and NO2- removal from industrial wastewater was found to be promising, in natural lighting conditions with the reaction time of 60 minutes, the concentrations of NH4+, NO3- and NO2- decreased from 20.00 to 0.053 mg/l; 1.02 and 0.87 mg/l, respectively. The removal efficiency ranged from 77 to 97%. However, in dark conditions, the removal efficiency attained was very low.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200Synthesis and characterization of composites x% g-C3N4/TiO2

Thomas Baubrand1, Dinh Thi Thuy Hang2, Nguyen Minh Hai3, Le Thanh Son3, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Quynh4, Nguyen Thanh Binh3,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

1Chemistry Department, Université Paris-Est Créteil, France
2 Institute of Environment, Vietnam Maritime University, Hai Phong, Vietnam
3Faculty of Chemistry, Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam
4Physico-chemistry Department, Viet Tri University of Industry, Phu Tho, Vietnam

ABSTRACT

Series of x% (wt) g-C3N4/TiO2 composites were synthesized by different adequate mechanical mixture of Ti(OH)4 and g-C3N4, followed by calcination at 400oC in air for 3 hours. The composites were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, IR,andUV-DRS. These XRD and IR results indicated the existence of TiO2 anatase phase and layer structure of g-C3N4 in all composites. The UV-DRS spectra of the composites showed the absorption zone shift in visible-light one with respect to TiO2. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated through the photodegradation of methylene blue. The initial results showed the highest degradation yield of 97% after 3h irradiation on 30% g-C3N4/TiO2. This result might be due to the low band gap of the composite and also the suitable ratio of two attached phase, TiO2 and g-C3N4, that favors the formation and prolonging lifetime of electron-hole pairs.

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200Synthesis and application of Ag/TiO2 for the photocatalytic treatment of Cr(VI) in water under visible light

Ngo Sy Thuy, Tran Thi Kieu Trinh, Nguyen Hong LienThis email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

School of Chemical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Dai Co Viet Road 1, Hanoi, Vietnam

ABSTRACT

Ag/TiO2 was synthesized by chemical deposition method. The catalyst samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The synthesized catalysts were tested for photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) in a batch reactor under UV light and Visible light irradiations. Effects of Ag content, the ratio of phenol/Cr(VI) and pH on the Cr(VI) conversion was investigated. With plasmonic effect of nano silver deposited on TiO2, the catalyst revealed activity for reduction of Cr(VI) under the visible light. The presence of phenol in the reaction solution significantly enhanced the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI).

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RESEARCH PAPER

open access logo 200x200STUDY IN TOLUEN OXIDATION OVER CoxCuyOz CATALYSTS ON DIFFERRENT SUPPORTS

Ngo Quoc Khanh1, Vu Duc Thao1, Pham Thanh Trung2, Le Minh Thang2,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

1 Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Ha Noi University of Science and technology, Hanoi, VIETNAM
2 School of Chemical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, VIETNAM

ABSTRACT

In this study, the catalyst of 10% wt of CoxCuyOz (Cu:Co=1:1wt) on different carriers (MCM41, Silica gel, Activated carbon) was prepared by wet impregnation method, then characterized by XRD, BET. Toluene adsorption and oxidation over these catalysts was investigated and compared. The results show that CoxCuyOz/MCM-41 is a potential catalyst for the adsorption-oxidation of toluene since it exhibit reasonable high adsorption capacity at 180 °C and almost 100% conversion of toluene to CO2 at high temperature (>450 °C). Oppositely, at low temperature CoxCuyOz/activated carbon is able to treat extremely high amount of toluene, but it is easy to be burnt at high temperature making difficulties for the desorption-oxidation period.

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